The global burden of age-related cognitive decline is increasing, with the number of people aged 60 and over expected to double by 2050. This study compares the immediate effects of three distinct cognitively demanding aerobic exercises on cognition and related biological responses in older, healthy adults. The study involved 25 healthy older golfers, aged 65 and above, who participated in three different acute bouts of aerobic exercise: an 18-hole golf round, a 6 km Nordic walking session, and a 6 km regular walking session. Cognitive function was assessed using the Trail-Making Test (TMT) A and B, which measures lower cognitive functions and more demanding executive functions, respectively. Results found that a single session of any of the three exercises improved lower cognitive functions measured with the TMT-A test in older adults. Furthermore, Nordic walking and regular walking were associated with enhanced executive functions measured with the TMT-B test.
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